This is a New page!  I will be assembling various data related to Ecosystem Services as I come across it, and so this page is a continual work in progress. Attempts will be made to source data from primary sources as much as possible.

Climate Change


“The findings of the report indicate that every year climate change leaves over 300,000 people dead, 325 million people seriously affected, and economic losses of US$125 billion. Four billion people are vulnerable, and 500 million people are at extreme risk. These figures represent averages based on projected trends over many years and carry a significant margin of error.”

Global Humanitarian Forum, 2009

TEEB (2010) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB.


  • Conserving forests avoids greenhouse gas emissions worth US$ 3.7 trillion. Halving deforestation rates by 2030 would reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by 1.5 to 2.7 GT CO2 per year, thereby avoiding damages from climate change estimated at more than US$ 3.7 trillion in NPV terms. This figure does not include the many co-benefits of forest ecosystems (Eliasch 2008).

Tree Planting

  • Tree planting enhances urban life quality in Canberra, Australia. Local authorities in Canberra have planted 400,000 trees to regulate microclimate, reduce pollution and thereby improve urban air quality, reduce energy costs for air conditioning as well as store and sequester carbon. These benefits are expected to amount to some US$ 20-67 million over the period 2008-2012, in terms of the value generated or savings realized for the city (Brack 2002).


  • Bee keeping generates US$ 213 million annually in Switzerland. A single bee colony ensured a yearly agricultural production worth (US$ 1,050) in pollinated fruits and berries in the year 2002, compared to just US$ 215 for direct products from beekeeping (e.g. honey, beeswax, pollen) (Fluri and Fricke 2005). On average, Swiss bee colonies ensured a yearly agricultural production worth about US$ 213 million by providing pollination, about five times value of the production of honey (TEEBcase: Valuation of pollination spurs support for bee keepers, Switzerland). The →total economic value of insect pollination worldwide is estimated at €153 billion, representing 9.5% of world agricultural output in 2005 (Gallai et al. 2009).



  • Global fisheries underperform by US$ 50 billion annually. Competition between highly subsidized industrial fishing fleets coupled with poor regulation and weak en- forcement of existing rules has led to over-exploitation of most commercially valuable fish stocks, reducing the income from global marine fisheries by US$ 50 billion annually, compared to a more sustainable fishing scenario (World Bank and FAO 2009).

Coral Reefs

  • The importance of coral reef ecosystem services. Although just covering 1.2% of the world’s continent shelves, coral reefs are home to an estimated 1-3 million species, including more than a quarter of all marine fish species (Allsopp et al. 2009). Some 30 million people in coastal and island communities are totally reliant on reef-based resources as their primary means of food production, income and livelihood (Gomez et al. 1994, Wilkinson 2004).

Green Products/Services

  • Green products and services represent a new market opportunity. Global sales of organic food and drink have recently been increasing by over US$ 5 billion a year, reaching US $46 billion in 2007 (Organic Monitor 2009); the global market for eco-labelled fish products grew by over 50% between 2008 and 2009 (MSC 2009); and ecotourism is the fastest-growing area of the tourism industry with an estimated increase of global spending of 20% annually (TIES 2006).

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